Hypercalcaemia in selected lympho- and myeloproliferative malignancies – – pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment
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Katedra i Klinika Hematologii i Transplantacji Szpiku Wydziału Lekarskiego w Katowicach Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach
Koło Naukowe Studenckiego Towarzystwa Naukowego przy Katedrze i Klinice Hematologii i Transplantacji Szpiku Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach
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Dariusz Kata   

Katedra i Klinika Hematologii i Transplantacji Szpiku Wydziału Lekarskiego w Katowicach Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach, ul. Dąbrowskiego 25, 40-032 Katowice, tel. 32 259 13 15
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2015;69:14-25
Hypercalcaemia is a serious metabolic complication of neoplastic diseases. Among hematological malignancies, hypercalcemia is particularly associated with multiple myeloma, it has rarely been reported in patients with non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas, or in cases of acute and chronic myeloproliferative diseases. The pathogenetic mechanism of hypercalcaemia is complex. A key process is an increase in osteoclast activity as a result of disturbances in the NF-kB ligand (RANKL) receptor activator system, its receptor (RANK) and osteoprotegerin. In addition, many other humoral factors were identified – hormones (for example the parathyroid hormone related peptide), vitamin D active metabolites, cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, and also transcription factors which are responsible for bone resorption and the development of hypercalcaemia in cases of particular neoplasms. This article presents the current opinions on the pathogenesis, symptomatology and current treatment methods of hypercalcaemia. Besides that, new experimental methods of therapy are described.
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