Stress, anxiety, depressive disorders, and somatisation among lawyers
 
More details
Hide details
1
Niepubliczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej nMed, Kraków
2
Department of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Katarzyna Sylwia Chrobak-Kasprzyk   

Niepubliczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej nMed, ul. E. Radzikowskiego 17/2, 31-315 Kraków
 
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2020;74:116–125
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The American Bar Association has published alarming figures, according to which 28% of lawyers in the USA suffer from depression, 19% demonstrate symptoms of anxiety, and 21% have an alcohol problem. Little is known about stress, anxiety, depressive disorders and somatization among Polish lawyers; therefore this paper is the first assessment of these disorders.

Material and methods:
The study covered 206 lawyers who are members of the District Bar Association in Katowice. An anonymous survey was carried out using the 4DSQ questionnaire.

Results:
Nearly 22% of lawyers have an increased level of stress, including 2% with a severely increased stress level. Somatization correlated strongly with stress, depression and anxiety, and occurred in about 21% of subjects. The study revealed a statistically significant relationship between the working hours per week and the following subscales: anxiety (r = 0.17; p = 0.01), stress (r = 0.17; p = 0.01), and depression (r = 0.16; p = 0.02). The performed analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the level of depression between women and men (t = 2.14; p = 0.03).

Conclusions:
The study is the first assessment of somatization, stress, anxiety, and depressive disorders among lawyers in Poland. High stress levels were found among the subjects, which correlated most significantly with somatization of the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems. Anxiety and depressive disorders were more frequent among lawyers than in the general population, and the number of somatic symptoms increased along with the severity of these disorders. Depressive disorders were more common among men.

 
REFERENCES (42)
1.
Krill P., Johnson R., Albert L. The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys. J. Addict. Med. 2016; 10(1): 46−52, doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000182.
 
2.
Coyle M., Bree Buchanan J. National task force on lawyer well-being Creating a Movement To Improve Well-Being in the Legal Profession. The Path to Lawyer Well-Being: Practical Recommendations for Positive Change.
 
3.
Bogowicz P., Ferguson J., Gilvarry E., Kamali F., Kaner E., Newbury-Birch D. Alcohol and other substance use among medical and law students at a UK university: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Postgrad. Med. J. 2018; 94(1109): 131−136, doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-135136.
 
4.
Kryteria diagnostyczne zaburzeń psychicznych DSM-5. Red. P. Gałecki, M. Pilecki, J. Rymaszewska, A. Szulc, A. Sidorowicz, J. Wciórka. Urban & Partner. Wrocław 2018.
 
5.
http://www.who.int/. Światowa Organizacja Zdrowia. 2018 [dostęp: 26.02.2019].
 
6.
http://www.who.int/news-room/f.... WHO [dostęp: 26.02.2019].
 
7.
Epidemiologia zaburzeń psychiatrycznych i dostępność psychiatrycznej opieki zdrowotnej EZOP-Polska. Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii. Akademia Medyczna we Wrocławiu. Wrocław 2012.
 
8.
http://www.nra.pl/. Krajowa Rada Adwokacka. Rejestr Adwokatów. 2018 [dostęp: 26.02.2019].
 
9.
Sitnikova K., Dijkstra-Kersten S., Mokkink L., Terluin B.,  Marwijk H.,  Leone S., van der Horst H., van der Wouden J. Systematic review of measurement properties of questionnaires measuring somatization in primary care patients. J Psychosom Res. 2017; 103: 42−62, doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.10.005.
 
10.
Graninger M. Psychosomatic medicine − viability of a discipline. Wien Med. Wochenschr. 2018; 168(3−4): 51, doi: 10.1007/s10354-017-0599-6.
 
11.
Straub R., Cutolo M.,. Psychoneuroimmunology-developments in stress research. Wien Med. Wochenschr. 2018; 168(3−4): 76−84, doi: 10.1007/s10354-017-0574-2.
 
12.
Czachowski S., Izdebski A., Terluin B., Izdebski P. Walidacja kwestionariusza 4DSQ mierzącego dystres, depresję, lęk i somatyzycję w Polsce. Probl. Med. Rodzj. 2013; 14(4): 14−20.
 
13.
Levin A., Albert L., Besser A., Smith D., Zelenski A., Rosenkranz S., Neria Y. Secondary traumatic stress in attorneys and their administrative support staff working with trauma-exposed clients. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2011; 199(12): 946−955, doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182392c26.
 
14.
Tsai F., Chan C. Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ Health 2010; 83(2): 133−142, doi: 10.1007/s00420-009-0454-1.
 
15.
Tsai F., Huang W., Chan C. Occupational stress and burnout of lawyers. J. Occup. Health 2009; 51(5): 443−450, doi: 10.1539/joh.l8179.
 
16.
Lewis P., Mazzoni P.,. Merritt Neurologia. [book auth.] S.A. Mayer E.D. Louis. 13. 2018, 175, pp. 1178−1181.
 
17.
Shimada F., Ohira Y., Hirota Y., Ikegami A. , Kondo T., Shikino K., Suzuki S., Noda K., Uehara T., Ikusaka M. Anxiety and depression in general practice outpatients: the long-term change process. Int. J. Gen. Med. 2018; 9(11): 55−63, doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S130025.
 
18.
Coppens E., Van Audenhove C., Gusmão R., Purebl G., Székely A., Maxwell M., Koburger N., Arensman E., Hegerl U. Effectiveness of General Practitioner training to improve suicide awareness and knowledge and skills towards depression. J. Affect. Disord. 2018; 227: 17−23, doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.09.039.
 
19.
https://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.... National Institute of Mental Health: Major Depression. 2018. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/healt... [dostęp: 26.02.2019].
 
20.
Defazio G., Pastore A., Pellicciari R., Pierri G., Gigante AF., Fabio G., Superbo M., Margari F. Personality disorders and somatization in functional and organic movement disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2017; 257: 227−229, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.07.068.
 
21.
Linden M., Muschalla B., Noack N., Heintze C., Doepfmer S. Treatment Changes in General Practice Patients With Chronic Mental Disorders Follo-wing a Psychiatric-Psychosomatic Consultation. Health Serv. Res. Manag. Epidemiol. 2018; 15(5): 2333392818758523, doi: 10.1177/2333392818758523.
 
22.
Sinnema H., Terluin B., Volker D., Wensing M., van Balkom A. Factors contributing to the recognition of anxiety and depression in general practice. BMC Fam. Pract. 2018; 19(1): 99, doi: 10.1186/s12875-018-0784-8.
 
23.
Armontrout J., Gitlin D., Gutheil T. Do Consultation Psychiatrists, Forensic Psychiatrists, Psychiatry Trainees, and Health Care Lawyers Differ in Opinion on Gray Area Decision-Making Capacity Cases? A Vignette-Based Survey. Psychosomatics 2016; 57(5): 472−479, doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2016.04.002.
 
24.
Skead N., Rogers S., Doraisamy J. Looking beyond the mirror: Psychological distress; disordered eating, weight and shape concerns; and maladaptive eating habits in lawyers and law students. Int. J. Law. Psychiatry 2018; 61: 90−102, doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.06.002.
 
25.
Fuentes Chacón R.M., Simón Saiz M.J., Garrido Abejar M., Serrano Parra M.D., Larrañaga Rubio M.E., Yubero Jiménez S. Psychosomatic symptoms as an expression of the deterioration of the health-related quality of life in adolescents. Aten. Primaria 2018; 50(8): 493−499, doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2017.06.009.
 
26.
Desmedt M., Bergs J., Vertriest S., Vlayen A., Schrooten W., Hellings J., Vandijck D. Systematic psychometric review of self-reported instruments to assess patient safety culture in primary care. J. Adv. Nurs. 2018; 74(3): 539−549. doi: 10.1111/jan.13464.
 
27.
El-Den S., Chen T., Gan Y., Wong E., O'Reilly C. The psychometric properties of depression screening tools in primary healthcare settings: A systematic review. J. Affect Disord. 2018; 225: 503−522, doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.060.
 
28.
Soria V., Uribe J., Salvat-Pujol N., Palao D., Menchón J., Labad J. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders. Rev. Psiquiatr. Salud. Ment. 2018; 11(2): 115−124, doi: 10.1016/j.rpsm.2017.07.006.
 
29.
Innstrand S.T., Langballe E.M., Falkum E., Aasland O.G. Exploring within- and between-gender differences in burnout: 8 different occupational groups. Int. Arch. Occup Environ.. Health 2011; 84(7): 813–824, doi: 10.1007/s00420-011-0667-y.
 
30.
Boland R., Rundell J., Epstein S., Gitlin D. Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry vs Psychosomatic Medicine: What's in a name? Psychosomatics 2018; 59(3): 207−210, doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2017.11.006.
 
31.
Gałecki P., Talarowska M. Teoria zapalna depresji – najważniejsze fakty. Psychiatr. Pol. 2018; 52(3): 437–447, doi: 10.12740/PP/76863.
 
32.
Sygit-Kowalkowska E., Weber-Rajek M., Herkt M., Ossowski R. Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics. Med. Pr. 2017; 68(1): 85−94, doi: 10.13075/mp.5893.00499.
 
33.
Skowroński B. Wypalenie zawodowe sądowych kuratorów zawodowych wykonujących orzeczenia w sprawach karnych i rodzinnych. Resocjalizacja Polska 2016; 11: 184−209.
 
34.
Liu J., Gill N., Teodorczuk A., Li Z., Sun J. The efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy in somatoform disorders and medically unexplained physical symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Affect Disord. 2019; 245: 98−112, doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.10.114.
 
35.
Gałecki P., Talarowska M. Cognition, emotions, depression, inflammable processes − basic principles of the neurodevelopmental theory of depression. Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia 2017; 12(1): 30−37, doi: 10.5114/nan.2017.68899.
 
36.
Żołnierczyk-Zreda D., Holas P. Psychospołeczne warunki pracy a depresja i zaburzenia depresyjne: przegląd badań. Med. Pr. 2018; 69(5): 573−581, doi: 10.13075/mp.5893.00703.
 
37.
Driot D., Dupouy J. Management of first depression or generalized anxiety disorder in adults in primary care: A systematic metareview. Presse Med. 2017; 46(12 Pt 1): 1124-1138, doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2017.10.010.
 
38.
Melin E., Svensson R., Thulesius H. Psychoeducation against depression, anxiety, alexithymia and fibromyalgia: a pilot study in primary care for patients on sick leave. Scand. J. Prim. Health Care. 2018; 36(2): 123−133, doi: 10.1080/02813432.2018.1459225.
 
39.
Salazar-Fraile J., Sempere-Verdú E., Pérez-Hoyos S., Tabarés-Seisdedos R., Gómez-Beneyto M. Five Interpersonal Factors Are Predictive of the Response to Treatment of Major Depression With Antidepressants in Primary Care. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9: 416, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00416.
 
40.
Haller H., Cramer H., Lauche R., Dobos G. Somatoform disorders and medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 2015;112(16): 279−287, doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0279.
 
41.
Remes O., Wainwright N., Surtees P., Lafortune L., Khaw K., Brayne C. Generalised anxiety disorder and hospital admissions: findings from a large, population cohort study. BMJ Open. 2018; 8(10): e018539, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018539.
 
42.
Piontek K., Shedden-Mora M., Gladigau M., Kuby A., Löwe B. Diagnosis of somatoform disorders in primary care: diagnostic agreement, predictors, and comaprisons with depression and anxiety. BMC Psychiatry 2018; 18(1): 361, doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1940-3.
 
 
CITATIONS (1):
1.
Imperfectly perfect: Examining psychosocial safety climate's influence on the physical and psychological impact of perfectionism in the practice of law
Michele Gazica, Samantha Powers, Stacey Kessler
Behavioral Sciences & the Law
 
eISSN:1734-025X