Contemporary procedures for age-related macular degeneration
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Specjalistyczny Szpital im. dra A. Sokołowskiego w Wałbrzychu
Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu
Matylda Kubiaczyk   

Spec. Szpital im. dra A. Sokołowskiego, ul. Batorego 4, 58-300 Wałbrzych, tel. +48 781 779 112
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2016;70:1–8
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease of the macula which leads to central vision loss in people aged 50 and older. The early stages of AMD are characterized by the occurrence of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities in the posterior pole of the retina. In the late atrophic and exudative stages of AMD, geographical atrophy and choroidal neovascularization are observed. The pathogenesis (etiology) of the disease is still unknown due to its multifactorial mechanism. Age, sex, race, genetic predispos ition, UVexposure, cardiovascular disease, smoking and antioxidant deficiency are considered as the risk factors. Causal treatment is not known. In properly selected cases, laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, thermotherapy treatment, intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs and surgical treatment are recommended. There is a vision-improving implantable device for patients with end-stage AMD already in use in the USA. In addition, in clinical trials there are preparations for topical use together with therapy that uses stem cells. During the last two decades, extensive research has led to significant advances in both the diagnosis and treatment of AMD.
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