Sleep quality and depressive disorders among priests of the Archdiocese of Katowice
 
More details
Hide details
1
Katedra i Zakład Medycyny i Epidemiologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Nauk Medycznych w Zabrzu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach
2
Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
3
Katedra Dziennikarstwa Ekonomicznego i Nowych Mediów, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Katowicach
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Jadwiga Jośko-Ochojska   

Katedra i Zakład Medycyny i Epidemiologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Nauk Medycznych w Zabrzu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze
 
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2021;75:85–98
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Chronic stress affects sleep quality and causes symptoms of depression among professionally active people. Priesthood, due to its specificity, can generate chronic stress. The aim of the study was to analyse the occupational load among a group of Catholic priests, evaluate the sleep quality and the prevalence of depressive disorders as well as identify the factors affecting their occurrence among clergymen.

Material and methods:
223 diocesan and monastic priests of the Archdiocese of Katowice were examined. A proprietary, validated questionnaire, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Sleep Quality Scale (SQS) were used in the study.

Results:
The factors generating the most stress among the studied priests were relations with their superiors (68.2%) and the change of parish (66.8%). The most prevalent of the negative states felt subjectively throughout their priesthood was fatigue (92.4%). A degraded quality of sleep occurred in 20.2% of the researched priests, while depressive disorders of various severity were found in 27.4%. The intensity of stress related to changing the parish, relations with superiors, celibacy and living alone were found to influence the quality of sleep and depression.

Conclusions:
Priests are reluctant to submit to a questionnaire survey regarding the state of mental health, while being at high risk of sleep disorders and depressive disorders. The lower the sleep quality, the higher the indicators of depressive disorders. Perfectionism, overcommitment, a feeling of being misunderstood, a need for recognition and high interpersonal sensitivity were conducive to the intensification of symptoms of depression among the studied group.

 
REFERENCES (42)
1.
Cekiera C. Psychospołeczne kryteria dojrzałości do celibatu i stanu duchownego. [W:] B.J. Soiński [red.]. Psychologiczne i pastoralne aspekty kapłaństwa. Wydział Teologiczny Uniwersytetu im. A. Mickiewicza. Poznań 2008, s. 108–119.
 
2.
Sanford J.A. Ministry Burnout. Paulist Press. New York 1982, s. 5–16.
 
3.
Radacki A. MIC. Psychologiczna analiza syndromu wypalenia u księży. Rozprawa doktorska. Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II. Lublin 2006.
 
4.
Baniak J. Obowiązkowy celibat i czystość seksualna księży rzymskokatolickich w wyobrażeniach i ocenach licealistów i studentów w Polsce. Konteksty Społeczne 2017; 5(2): 52–78.
 
5.
Golan Z. Kryzysy rozwojowe w życiu kapłana. [W:] B.J. Soiński [red.]. Psychologiczne i pastoralne aspekty kapłaństwa. Wydział Teologiczny Uniwersytetu im. A. Mickiewicza. Poznań 2008, s. 275–286.
 
6.
Cencini A. FdCC. Kryzys – godzina Boga. Zeszyty Formacji Duchowej nr 76. Wyd. Salwator. Kraków 2017.
 
7.
Wons K. SDS. Rozwój i zamieranie instytutów zakonnych: kryteria rozeznawania. Wyd. Salwator. Kraków 2008.
 
8.
Gretkowski A. Syndrom wypalenia wśród duchowieństwa na przykładzie wybranej grupy księży diecezji płockiej. [W:] T. Zbyrad. [red.]. Wypalenie zawodowe pracowników służb społecznych. Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II. Wydział Zamiejscowy Nauk o Społeczeństwie w Stalowej Woli. Instytut Socjologii. Stalowa Wola 2008, s. 170–187.
 
9.
Beck A.T., Ward C.H., Mendelson M., Mock J., Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561–571, doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.
 
10.
Smarr K.L., Keefer A.L. Measures of depression and depressive symptoms: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Arthritis Care Res. 2011; 63 Suppl. 11: S454–S466, doi: 10.1002/acr.20556.
 
11.
Kasperczyk J., Jośko J. The estimation of sleep quality by means of SEN questionnaire. [W:] A. Kaczor, A. Borzęcki, M. Iskra [red.]. Środowiskowe źródła zagrożeń zdrowotnych. Wyd. Polihymnia. Lublin 2007, s. 225–227.
 
12.
Fichter J.H. Priest and people. Sheed & Ward. New York 1965.
 
13.
Dittes J.E. Minister on the spot. Pilgrim Press. Philadelphia, PA 1970.
 
14.
Sanford J.A. Ministry burnout. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press; 1982.
 
15.
Brouwer R. Pastor tussen macht en onmacht [Pastor between power and powerlessness]. Boekencentrum. Zoetermeer 1995.
 
16.
Rossetti S.J., Rhoades C.J. Burnout in Catholic clergy: A predictive model using psychological and spiritual variables. Psychol. Relig. Spiritual. 2013; 5(4): 335–341, doi: 10.1037/a0033639.
 
17.
Louden S.H., Francis L.J. The naked parish priest: What priests really think they’re doing. Bloomsbury Publishing. London 2003.
 
18.
Evers W., Tomic W. Burnout among Dutch reformed pastors. J. Psychol. Theol. 2003; 31(4): 329–338, doi: 10.1177/009164710303100403.
 
19.
Miner M.H. Burnout in the first year of ministry: Personality and belief style as important predictors. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2007; 10(1): 17–29, doi: 10.1080/13694670500378017.
 
20.
Randall K.J. Examining the relationship between burnout and age among Anglican clergy in England and Wales. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2007; 10(1): 39–46, doi: 10.1080/13674670601012303.
 
21.
Joseph E.N., Luyten P., Corvelyn J., De Witte H. The relationship between personality, burnout, and engagement among the Indian clergy. Int. J. Psychol. Relig. 2011; 21(4): 276–288, doi: 10.1080/10508619.2011.607412.
 
22.
Rossetti S.J. Why Priests are Happy. A Study of the Psychological and Spiritual Health of Priests. Ave Maria Press. Notre Dame 2011.
 
23.
Knox S., Virginia S.G., Thull J., Lombardo J.P. Depression an Contributors to Vocational Satisfaction in Roman Catholic Secular Clergy. Pastoral Psychol. 2005; 54(2): 139–155, doi: 10.1007/s11089-005-6199-1.
 
24.
Fichter J.H. The Myth of Clergy Burnout. Sociol. Anal. 1984; 45(4): 373–382.
 
25.
Virginia S.G. Burnout and Depression Among Roman Catholic Secular, Religious, and Monastic Clergy. Pastoral Psychol. 1998; 47(1): 49–67, doi: 10.1023/A:1022944830045.
 
26.
Knox S., Virginia S.G., Lombardo J.P. Depression and Anxiety in Roman Catholic Secular Clergy. Pastoral Psychol. 2002; 50(5): 345–358.
 
27.
Rybakowski J. Zaburzenia afektywne. [W:] M. Jarema [red.]. Psychiatria: podręcznik dla studentów medycyny. Wyd. Lekarskie PZWL. Warszawa 2016, s. 171–195.
 
28.
López Herrera H., Pedrosa I., Vicente Galindo M.P., Suárez-Álvarez J., Galindo Villardón M.P., García-Cueto E. Multivariate analysis of burnout syndrome in Latin-American priests. Psicothema 2014; 26(2): 227–234, doi: 10.7334/psicothema2013.178.
 
29.
Zaburzenia snu i czuwania. DSM-5. Selections. M. Skalski [red.]. Edra Urban & Partner. Wrocław 2017.
 
30.
Isacco A., Sahker E., Krinock E., Sim W., Hamilton D. How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests. Am. J. Mens Health 2016; 10(4): 325–337, doi: 10.1177/1557988314567325.
 
31.
Abu-Raiya H., Pargament K.I. Religious coping among diverse religions: Commonalities and divergences. Psychol. Relig. Spiritual. 2015; 7(1): 24–33, doi: 10.1037/a0037652.
 
32.
Baumann K., Jacobs C., Frick Sj E., Büssing A. Commitment to Celibacy in German Catholic Priests: Its Relation to Religious Practices, Psychosomatic Health and Psychosocial Resources. J. Relig. Health 2017; 56(2): 649–668, doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0313-9.
 
33.
33. Terry K.J., Leland Smith M., Schuth K. OSF, Kelly J.R., Vollman B., Massey C. The causes and context of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests in the United States, 1950-2010. USCCB. Washington, DC 2011, https://www.usccb.org/sites/de...
 
34.
Terry K.J. Child sexual abuse within Catholic Church: a review of global perspectives. Int. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice 2015; 39(2): 139–154.
 
35.
Zwingmann C., Klein C., Büssing A. Measuring religiosity/spirituality: theoretical differentiations and categorization of instruments. Religions 2011; 2(3): 345–357, doi: 10.3390/rel2030345.
 
36.
Koenig H.G. Religion, spirituality, and health: a review and update. Adv. Mind Body Med. 2015; 29(3): 19–26.
 
37.
Anthony J.S., Johnson A., Schafer J. African American Clergy and Depression: What they know; What they want to know. J. Cult. Divers. 2015; 22(4): 118–126.
 
38.
Brown J.Y., McCreary M.L. Pastors' counseling practices and perceptions of mental health services: implications for African American mental health. J. Pastoral Care Counsel. 2014; 68(1–2): 2.
 
39.
James B.O., Igbinomwanhia N.G., Omoaregba J.O. Clergy as collaborators in the delivery of mental health care: an exploratory survey from Benin City, Nigeria. Transcult. Psychiatry 2014; 51(4): 569–580, doi: 10.1177/1363461514525219.
 
40.
Iheanacho T., Stefanovics E., Ezeanolue E.E. Clergy's Beliefs About Mental Illness and Their Perception of Its Treatability: Experience from a Church-Based Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) Trial in Nigeria. J. Relig. Health 2018; 57(4): 1483–1496, doi: 10.1007/s10943-017-0545-3.
 
41.
Payne J.S. The influence of secular and theological education on pastors' depression intervention decisions. J. Relig. Health 2014; 53(5): 1398–1413, doi: 10.1007/s10943-013-9756-4.
 
42.
Isacco A., Sahker E., Hamilton D., Mannarino M.B, Sim W., St Jean M. A qualitative study of mental health help-seeking among Catholic priests. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2014; 17(7): 741–757, doi: 10.1080/13674676.2014.910759.
 
eISSN:1734-025X