Use of low-carbohydrate diets in patients with type 2 diabetes
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Department of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health in Bytom, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Elżbieta Szczepańska   

Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health in Bytom, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze, Poland
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2018;72:287–293
The treatment of type 2 diabetes should be supported with a proper diet paired with physical activity at every stage of therapy. Carbohydrates are key macronutrients with a direct effect on the level of postprandial glycaemia. For the past several decades, dietary intervention studies investigating and comparing the effects of limiting carbohydrate intake in favour of other macronutrients have been carried out. A low-carbohydrate diet has been and still is suggested by some experts as well as patient organizations as the most effective option that is associated with the smallest risk of side effects. The recommendations, however, have not been supported with evidence from high quality randomized control trials. The aim of this work is to review the published meta-analyses of randomized control trials, which compared the parameters relevant for the treatment of diabetes, including fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, the lipid profile and weight loss. Currently, there is insufficient scientific evidence allowing a uniform recommendation to be made regarding the optimum amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet, hence the relevant recommendations should be tailored to each patient. In dietary interventions among type 2 diabetes, lowering the patient’s diet energy content is of primary importance, as well as the quality of ingested macronutrients, especially carbohydrates and fats.
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