Nephrolithiasis in children hospitalized in clinic of nephrology – single center experience
More details
Hide details
Oddział Nefrologii Dzieci, Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 1 w Zabrzu
Katedra i Klinika Pediatrii, Wydział Lekarski z Oddziałem Lekarsko-Dentystycznym w Zabrzu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach
Poradnia Kardiologiczna NZOZ „Medicor”, Myszków
Corresponding author
Maria Szczepańska   

Katedra i Klinika Pediatrii, Wydział Lekarski z Oddziałem Lekarsko-Dentystycznym w Zabrzu, SUM w Katowicach, ul. 3 Maja 13/15, 41-800 Zabrze, Polska
Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. 2017;71:139-147
Currently we do not have reliable data on the epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in children and ado-lescents in Poland. It seems that it becomes a civilization disease and it is being diagnosed increasingly in the pediatric population. The reasons for this phenomenon include changes in eating habits, physical inactivity, epidemics of obesity and even global climate warming.

Material and methods:
Our manuscript presents the results of a retrospective analysis of a group of children hospitalized due to nephrolithiasis and metabolic predisposition to the formation of urinary tract deposits in 2010– –2013 years in the Clinic of Nephrology, Childrens’ Hospital in Zabrze. The assessment was made regarding the pre-valence of each metabolic risk factor and its relationship with the ultrasound image.

Results i conclusions:
The group of children with suspected nephrolithiasis, or the state of metabolic predisposition for kidney stones is characterized by a large variety of biochemical disturbances, which are favourable for crystallization deposits formation in the urinary tract. What is surprising, is the lack of relationship between the intensity of changes on kidney ultrasound and biochemical abnormalities potentially predisposing to the formation of deposits. Nephrocalcinosis in ultrasound shows the clear relationship with hypercalciuria. Primary disorders of the parathyroid, and an overdosing of vitamin D are rarely the explanation of the cause of nephrolithiasis in children.

Tasian G.E., Copelovitch L. Evaluation and medical management of kidney stones in children. J. Urol. 2014; 192(5): 1329–1336.
Van Dervoort K., Wiesen J., Frank R., Vento S., Crosby V., Chandra M., Trachtman H. Urolithiasis in pediatric patients: a single center study of incidence, clinical presentation and outcome. J. Urol. 2007; 177(6): 2300–2305.
Routh J.C., Graham D.A., Nelson C.P. Epidemiological trends in pediatric urolithiasis at United States freestanding pediatric hospitals. J. Urol. 2010; 184(3): 1100–1104.
Romero V., Akpinar H., Assimos D.G. Kidney Stones: A global picture of prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Rev. Urol. 2010; 12(2–3): 86–96.
Halbritter J., Baum M., Hynes A.M., Rice S.J., Thwaites D.T., Gucev Z.S., Fisher B., Spaneas L., Porath J.D., Braun D.A., Wassner A.J., Nelson C.P., Tasic V., Sayer J.A., Hildebrandt F. Fourteen Monogenic Genes Account for 15% of Nephrolithiasis/ Nephrocalcinosis. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2015; 26(3): 543–551.
Taylor E.N., Stampfer M.J., Curhan G.C. Obesity, weight gain and the risk of kidney stones. JAMA 2005; 293(4): 455–462.
Nowfar S., Palazzi-Churas K., Chang D.C., Sur R.L. The relationship of obesity and gender prevalence changes in United States inpatient nephrolithiasis. Urology 2011; 78: 1029–1033.
Brikowski T.H., Lotan Y., Pearle M. Climate-related increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008; 105(28): 9841–9846.
Chen Y.K., Lin H.C., Chen C.S., Yeh S.D. Seasonal variations in urinary calculi attacks and their association with climate: a population based study. J. Urol. 2008; 179: 564–569.
Kamińska A., Bieroza I. Kamica układu moczowego u dzieci. Nowa Pediatr. 2011; 15(2): 42–48.
Mohamed J., Riadh M., Abdellatif N. Urolithiasis in infants. Pediatr. Surg. Int. 2007; 23(4): 295–299.
Koyuncu H.H., Yencilek F., Eryildirim B., Sarica K. Family history in stone disease: how important is it for the onset of the disease and the incidence of recurrence? Urol. Res. 2010; 38(2): 105–109.
Bandari J., Dangle P.P., Lyon T.D., Lee A., Schneck F.X., Cannon G.M., Stephany H.A., Ost M.C. 24-Hour Urinary Parameters in Overweight and Obese Children with Urolithiasis. J. Urol. 2016; 196(2): 526–530.
Hoyer P.F. Nephrocalcinose. In Hofmann V., Deeg K.H., Hoyer P.F. (red). Ultraschalldiagnostik in Pädiatrie und Kinderchirurgie. Thieme. Stuttgart 1996, 372–374.
Matlaga B.R., Schaeffer A.J., Novak T.E., Trock B.J. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease. Urol. Res. 2010; 38(6): 453–457.
Novak T.E., Lekshmenen Y., Trock B.J., Gearhart J.P., Matlaga B.R. Sex prevalence of pediatric kidney stone disease in the United States: an epidemiologic investigation. Urology. 2009; 74: 104–107.
Menditto V.G., Lucci M., Polonara S. The role of hypomagnesiuria in urolithiasis and renal colic: results from a prospective study of a metabolic evaluation protocola. Minerva Med. 2012; 103(5): 377–382.
Oğuz U., Resorlu B., Unsal A. Metabolic evaluation of patients with urinary system stone disease: a research of pediatric and adult patients. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 2014; 46(2): 329–334.
Chen X., Shen L., Gu X., Dai X., Zhang L., Xu Y., Zhou P. High-dose supplementation with vitamin C–induced pediatric urolithiasis: the first case report in a child and literature review. Urology. 2014; 84(4): 922–924.
Ubetagoyena Arrieta M., Corera Casty M.N., Martínez Saenz de Jubera J., González Hospitaler M.T., Areses Trapote R., Pérez-Yarza E.G. Lithogenic risk assessment in children with kidney stones. Arch. Esp. Urol. 2015; 68(4): 429–434.
Doğan C.S., Uslu-Gökçeoğlu A., Comak E., Alimoğlu E., Koyun M., Akman S. Renal function and linear growth of children with nephrocalcinosis: a retrospective single-center study. Turk J. Pediatr. 2013; 55(1): 58–62.
Fallahzadeh M.H., Zare J., Al-Hashemi G.H., Derakhshan A., Basiratnia M., Arasteh M.M., Fallahzadeh M.A., Fallahzadeh M.K. Elevated serum levels of Vitamin D in infants with urolithiasis. Iran J. Kidney Dis. 2012; 6(3): 186–191.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top